Year: 2023

Ukrainian female refugee artists on the Polish labour market

Working in the freelance professions is characterised by a high risk of precarity, due to the lack of a stable and regular income, irregularity of orders, project-based activities and so on. In the context of forced migration to Poland, Ukrainian female refugees - freelancers  additionally face the language barrier, the specificity of a different labour market, clients and recipients, and the lack of social networks developed in the home country. In many cases, they also had to leave their tools and workshops in Ukraine, which may generate difficulties in practising one's profession, obtaining and executing orders. On the other hand, the Internet and the post-pandemic opening of institutions to online activities potentially create opportunities to work outside the borders of one's country or to work in the transnational space. 


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