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New Modes of Governance - Phase 2: Delegation of public tasks to independent agencies (2004-2008)



Case Study: The Agricultural Paying Agency, Slovakia
Miroslav Beblavý
This case study is focused on the analysis of the new modes of governance with reference to the rural development policy, with particular consideration given to the programmes making use of the EU funds. Its subject is the Agricultural Paying Agency in Slovakia as a good and internationally comparable example of agency on which the EU accession has had important and sustained influence. In terms of overall performance of the agency, the conclusion is that the Agricultural Paying Agency has been successful. EU accession and EU funds meant a significant change in how the business was done though and the new APA model is based on a bureaucratic, Weberian logic, where individual civil servants are responsible for specific steps in evaluating documents and the final decision is made based on aggregation of all evaluations in a formula-based fashion. In terms of its establishment, technical complexity, lack of experience, existence of outside authority (EC) and high political importance meant a curious combination of technocrats working with political support but limited interference. As a result, power seeped away from ministry downwards to APA and upwards to the European Union, particularly European Council and European Commission. The key stakeholders were not the traditional social partners, but lobbyist associations of agricultural producers and their role was limited to practical feedback with very little power sharing on strategic issues. These conclusions are subject to some change as a new government brings new political equilibrium and politicians and ministerial civil servants lose some of their awe towards the agency.

Case Study: The Agricultural Paying Agency, Slovakia

 

 

Case Study: The National Paying Agency in Lithuania
Rita Stafejeva
The focus of this paper rests on the analysis of the new modes of governance with reference to the rural development policy, with particular consideration given to the programmes making use of the EU funds. The study offers an evaluation of task performance in the context of rural development and the allocation of the EU funds, taking into account the policy implemented during the accession period. The paper is based on the field research conducted in Lithuania in summer 2006. The research was concerned with the institution responsible for the realization of the rural development policy, namely, the National Paying Agency (Nacionaline mokejimo agentura; further in the text referred as the NPA). The paper concentrates on the new modes of governance introduced in the discussed institution. Also of key importance here is the analysis of the influence of methods related to the allocation of the EU funds. The research focused on the analysis of changes in the functioning of policy implementing institution and the effectiveness in the context of the European and national policies. The important part of the research comprised an analysis of the social participation, i.e. the influence the social partners exert on the functioning of the Agency.

Case Study: The National Paying Agency in Lithuania

 

 

Case Study of an Executive Agency in Poland: Between Political Culture, Europeanization and Modernization Challenges
Mateusz Falkowski, Tomasz Grzegorz Grosse, Ewelina Skwarczynska
In consequence of the European Union enlargement we have been observing in Poland a process of transformation of public institutions and establishment of new institutions appointed specifically for the purpose of delivering EU policies. There is arguably no other policy area where the EU enlargement has impacted the governance process in Poland that evokes more interest than the Common Agricultural Policy and the ability of Polish public administration to effectively manage EU direct farm subsidies and structural agricultural programs. Dispersed agriculture, its substantial contribution to Polish economy combined with low productivity, huge rural electorate and significant modernization challenges – all this has contributed to the great deal of interest paid by politicians, the media and, finally, farming communities - beneficiaries of that assistance - to the activities of the Agency for Restructuring and Modernisation of Agriculture (ARMA), which implements EU agricultural assistance programmes in Poland. The study conducted by the Institute of Public Affairs (IPA) aimed at analysing different processes of Europeanization of Polish administration, that is changes that are introduced in the functioning and organization of public institutions as a result of the execution of EU policies and implementation of EU laws. Moreover, we were interested in learning whether Europeanization processes were introducing new modes of governance into the practical conduct of Polish administration. Consequently, one of the main questions asked in this study is how the processes of Europeanization of an implementing agency connect with domestic factors that shape the way that public administration functions. The issue is associated primarily with the influence of local and political culture, including tradition stemming from the socialist period. How does this tradition modify the impact of Europeanization?

Case Study of an Executive Agency in Poland: Between Political Culture, Europeanization and Modernization Challenges

 

 

Challenges of the Common Agricultural Policy Management. The Role of Agencies. Conditions of Implementing CAP in Poland
Barbara Wieliczko
This paper is aimed at analysing the formal and informal requirements towards management system of the common agricultural policy that the New Member States entering the EU in 2004 were faced with. The focal point of this paper is the presentation of the EU regulations dealing with the shape of the CAP implementation system at the national level.

Challenges of the Common Agricultural Policy Management. The Role of Agencies. Conditions of Implementing CAP in Poland

 

 

Agency System in Poland after 1989 - Background paper to Phase Two of the IPA study
Olga Napiontek
The objective of this article is to show how the elements of the agency system work in Poland and why agencies are created. It is also meant to draw attention to the assessment of the effectiveness of agency-type institutions over the past 17 years. State agencies have long been criticized in Poland and so the article also points out widespread pathologies in agency operations. The article focuses on a limited segment of the agency system in Poland and analyzes the performance of two agency types: state-run appropriated funds and so-called “state agencies”. This restriction of the field of interest is due, on one hand, to the concern for the usefulness of this article to future studies conducted within the IPA project on the Agriculture Restructuring and Modernization Agency (ARMA) and, on the other, to the fact that in specialized literature agencies and appropriated funds are very often discussed together because of their commonality in terms of functioning and problems associated therewith.

Agency System in Poland after 1989 - Background paper to Phase Two of the IPA study

 

Agencies and Agency Systems - Background paper to Phase Two of the IPA study
Tomasz Grzegorz Grosse
This paper is a theoretical introduction to the second phase of the Institute of Public Affairs study conducted in three new EU member states: Poland, Lithuania and Estonia. The study examines the functioning of executive agencies tasked with implementing selected EU policies. It focuses on an analysis of how European integration influences changes in the management style in public administration. This phase of the study will deal with agencies that manage agriculture and rural development policies. In Poland, this role is played predominantly by the Agriculture Modernization and Development Agency. This paper looks into development of agencies and agency systems in enlarged European Union with particular attention to executive agencies and situation in new member countries. Paper examines basic theoretical concepts of this method of organizing public policies in EU. It analyses following theoretical questions and dilemmas: (1) two sorts of motivations to build up agency systems (functional and contextual), (2) concepts explaining relations among main actors in management structures, (3) dilemmas in ensuring agency effectiveness, (4) dilemmas of social participation and agency legitimization, (5) dilemmas and consequences of Europeanization of agencies, with particular attention to situation in new member countries. In closing remarks it is argued the importance of paradigm change in contemporary theoretical discussion about agencies and agency systems in EU. Delegation of public tasks to agency institutions, especially to European ones, as well as creation of networks of cooperation between the European technocracy and national agencies aims at increasing the effectiveness of the execution of public tasks. It also may have additional consequences, i.e. it may have an effect on the condition of the democratic system in Europe and deterioration of democratic legitimacy for public administration and EU public policies.

Agencies and Agency Systems - Background paper to Phase Two of the IPA study

 

New Modes of Governance in agencies implementing UE policies: examples of Europeanization in 3 new EU Member States
Report on the Final Seminar of the project: Delegation of public tasks to independent agencies in EU member states: Poland and Lithuania

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